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For the Dungeons and Dragons creature, see Lilitu (Dungeons and Dragons).
Lilitu are described as an evil female spirit in ancient Semitic legend, alleged to haunt deserted places and attack children. The word lilu means spirit in the Akkadian Language, and the male lili and female lilitu are found in incantation texts from Nippur, Babylonia c600 BC in both singular and plural forms. Among the spirits the vardat lilitu, or maiden spirit bears some comparison with later Talmudic legends of Lilith. A lili is related to witchcraft in the Sumerian incantation Text 313.
- Lesses, Rebecca Exe(o)rcising Power: Women as Sorceresses, Exorcists, and Demonesses in Babylonian Jewish Society of Late Antiquity 2001 JAAR Journal of the American Academy of Religion Abstract pp. 343–375
- Georges Contenau La Magie chez les Assyriens et les Babyloniens, Paris, 1947.
- Georges Contenau Everyday Life in Babylon and Assyria translated by KR Maxwell-Hyslop and AR Maxwell-Hyslop (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1954)
- Fauth, Wolfgang (1982) Lilitu und die Eulen von Pylos. In Tischler, Johann. (ed.). Serta Indogermanica: Festschrift für Günter Neumann zum 60. Geburtstag. pp. 60–61
- S. Lackenbacher, RA 65 (1971)
- Graham Cunningham Deliver me from evil: Mesopotamian incantations, 2500–1500 BC 1997 p104